This profile provides an overview of climate risk issues in Bangladesh, including how climate change will potentially impact five key sectors in the country: agriculture and food security, water resources, human health, ecosystems, and energy. The brief also includes an overview of historical and future climate trends in the region, the policy context outlining existing climate risk strategies and plans developed by Bangladesh, and a list of ongoing projects that focus on climate adaptation.
Sitting in a predominantly low-lying region at the intersections of the Ganga, Meghna, and Brahmaputra rivers and the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to a changing climate. Many of the country’s densely populated urban centers are susceptible to increased flooding related to storm surge and sea level rise, and Bangladesh is acutely exposed to tropical cyclones with one hitting, on average, every three years. Most recently, Cyclone Mora struck Bangladesh in May 2017, displacing 500,000 Bangladeshis in coastal areas and damaging 20,000 homes in refugee camps.
Bangladesh has a number of national strategies and plans that address climate risk and adaptation. Additionally, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) was established after the Government of Bangladesh signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. MoEF is mandated to ensure that environmental matters are considered in development programming. MoEF is also required to review and monitor the impact of development initiatives on the environment across all sectors.