This profile provides an overview of climate risk issues in Madagascar, including how climate change will impact water resources, agriculture, coastal ecosystems, fisheries and human health. The brief includes a country overview of Madagascar, the climate, projected changes and information on sector impacts and vulnerabilities to climate change, the policy context and information regarding ongoing climate change projects in Madagascar.
Madagascar is the world’s fourth largest island and home to a diverse and unique range of species and ecosystems, many of them vulnerable to current and future climate patterns. The country has one of the highest poverty rates in Africa, with 81 percent of the population living on less than $1.25 per day. Madagascar has the highest risk from cyclones in Africa and in the past 20 years Madagascar has been struck by 35 cyclones, 8 floods and 5 periods of severe droughts (a three-fold increase over the previous 20 years), causing $1 billion in damages and affecting food security, drinking water supply and irrigation, public health systems, environmental management and quality of life.